Year: 2019 | Month: December | Volume 8 | Issue 2
Microencapsulation Technology to Enhance the Viability of Probiotic Bacteria in Fermented Foods: An Overview
Microencapsulation is one of the promising technologies to enhance the viability of probiotics microorganisms in functional foods. It also helps to extend the shelf life of many fermented food products. Lactic acid bacteria were microencapsulated within the concept of the immobilized cell technology (ICT) from many years for continuous fermentation processes and improved biomass production. But, these microcapsules are artificially created to support the growth of the probiotics and provide protection from harsh external environments. For microencapsulation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, polysaccharides like alginate, gelan, carrageenan, chitosan and starch are the most commonly used materials. Emulsion, extrusion, spray drying, and adhesion to starch are some of the commonly applied methods for microencapsulation. However, there are still significant hurdles with respect to currently available methods for probiotic cell microencapsulation. This is mainly due to the fact that important characteristics of microcapsules based on ICT appear to be in conflict with the requirements arising from an application of probiotic microcapsules in food products, with particle size and inappropriate matrix characteristics being the most prominent ones. The aim of this review is to give a critical overview of the current approaches regarding the microencapsulation of probiotic microorganisms for food applications, especially in fermented milk products and to report on emerging developments.
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